Tuesday, June 22, 2010


Nobody in Germany thinks of baking regular, plain white rolls at home. You get them freshly baked everywhere, in bakeries, supermarkets, and even in gas stations.

Every German region has them, called "Rundstück" in Hamburg, "Schrippe" in Berlin, "Semmel" in Munich, or simply "Brötchen" (= little bread).

The typical Brötchen has a crackly crisp crust and a fluffy, soft, easy to pull out crumb. It has nothing in common with its soft, sweet and chewy US cousin, the dinner roll. And American Kaiser Rolls are just Kaisersemmel wannabes, they share only the pretty star cut with their Bavarian or Austrian ancestors.

Brötchen crumb should be soft, fluffy, and easy to pull out

One of the greatest woes of German expats is the total lack of this everyday staple in the US.

No Brötchen to be found anywhere - perhaps bad imitations, but never the real thing.

And worse: no cookbook would even list a recipe!

In those days I had no clue about the differences between European and American flours.

I only knew they were categorized in a different way, European flours by their ash content (meaning what is left if you burn it) and American ones by their protein level.

One day we were shopping at our favorite Italian grocery, Micucci, in Portland. I saw Italian flour Tipo 00 on their shelves, and bought it, more out of curiosity then anything else. I remembered it listed as an ingredient in one of my most favorite bread baking books from a bakery in South Tyrol, Italy.
Different toppings to choose from

In Ploner's "Brot aus Südtirol" I had finally found a recipe for Brötchen. I tried them several times, just assuming "Tipo 00" would be the same as all-purpose flour.

Frustratingly, every time the rolls turned out lean and chewy, more reminiscent of French bread.

But when I used the Italian flour, I finally nailed it: my rolls had the soft, fluffy, "pull-out" crumb typical for Brötchen.

Wikipedia told me why: US wheat has much more protein compared with European wheat.

Protein rich flour develops a strong gluten structure, so that the crumb is airy and chewy. Soft, low protein flours, like German Typ 405, or Italian Tipo 00, have much less gluten and bake into breads with a denser, fluffier crumb.

For an American/European flour "translation", click here.

I like a crunchy seed topping (as shown in the photos), but you can also give your rolls or a simple shiny, crackly glaze, so that they look like Rundstücke.

WEIZENBRÖTCHEN    (adapted from Richard Ploner: "Brot aus Südtirol")
 (12 rolls):

500 g/17.6 oz Italian Tipo 00 or pastry flour
8 g/0.3 oz instant yeast
4 g/1 tsp. sugar
270 g/9.1 oz water, lukewarm
40 g/1.4 oz olive oil
10 g/0.4 oz salt

Seed Topping
1 egg, slightly beaten, for brushing
sesame, poppy or sunflower seeds, for topping


Shiny, Crackly Glaze
 2 g cornstarch, boiled in
100 g water, and cooled to room temperature 

In the evening, stir yeast into lukewarm water until dissolved. Mix all ingredients for 1 minute at lowest speed (mixer or wooden spoon). Let dough sit for 5 minutes.

Knead on medium-low speed (or with hands) for 2 minutes. Dough should be supple and still a little bit sticky (adjust with water if needed). Continue kneading for 4 more minutes, increasing speed to medium-high for last 30 sec. Dough should be very tacky, bordering on sticky.

Fold the dough like a business letter in thirds

Transfer dough to lightly floured work surface. With wet or oiled hands, stretch and fold dough like a business envelope in thirds, then turn it around 90 degrees, and fold from short sides the same way.

Gather dough ball, sides tucked underneath, and place it in lightly oiled bowl. Cover, and let rest for 10 minutes. Repeat these stretches and folds 3 more times, every 10 minutes (40 min. total time)*.

Place dough in oiled bowl or container with lid (I divide it at this point in halves, and use 1-qt plastic containers). Roll dough around to coat all over with oil. Cover with plastic wrap or lid, and place in the fridge overnight.

*This technique is described in detail in Peter Reinhart's "Artisan Bread Every Day".

The dough is full of gas bubbles and has doubled

DAY 2:
Remove dough from refrigerator 3 hours before baking, to de-chill and double their original size. Prepare egg wash and three bowls with sesame, poppy and sunflower seeds for topping. Line baking sheet with parchment paper.

Shape dough into 12 little rolls.

Divide dough into 12 equal pieces, and shape them into rolls. Brush each with egg wash, then dip in seeds. If you prefer a shiny, crackly crust, skip egg wash (apply cornstarch glaze after proofing.)

Place dough balls seam side down on baking sheet. Let rolls rise ca 2 - 2 1/4 hours, or until grown 2 times their original size (remember to preheat oven after 1 3/4 hours.)

Ready for the oven

Preheat oven to 428º F/220º C, including steam pan.

Brush proofed rolls with cornstarch glaze (if using). Place rolls in oven, pouring 1 cup boiling water in steam pan.

Bake for 9 minutes, then re-brush with cornstarch glaze (if using), rotate baking sheet 180 degrees for even browning, and continue baking for another 9 - 10 minutes, or until golden brown (internal temperature at least 200º F/92º C).

Leave rolls in switched off oven for 10 minutes more (leave door a crack open), before taking them out to cool on a rack.

BreadStorm users (also the free version) can download the formula:

Freerk of BreadLab made a very nice video clip of how to make these rolls - view it at YouTube.

And check out Joanna's Brötchen post at Zeb Bakes, one of my favorite blogs with great breads and lovely photos. 

Ian, from Mookie Loves Bread made the rolls with fruit yeast water and a toasted onion, black sesame, Asiago cheese and flaxseed topping.


  1. Hanseata, hast Du dies mal angeschaut ?


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  2. Hallo, Anna, ich habe verschiedenste Rezepte ausprobiert und mir dieses auch angesehen. Eine Schwierigkeit sind ja die unterschiedlichen Mehltypen in den USA (proteinreicher als die deutschen).
    Ich wollte unbedingt ein Broetchen backen, das die "herausnehmbare" Krume hat, wie ich sie von den Rundstuecken aus Hamburg gewoehnt bin. Ein anderes Problem ist immer eine wirklich krosse, aber trotzdem nicht zu dicke Kruste zu erzielen (endlos in Backwebsites wie "The Fresh Loaf" diskutiert). Mein Rezept kommt diesem Ideal ziemlich nahe. Das langsamere Gehen des Teigs ueber Nacht im Kuehlschrank macht die Sache nicht nur einfacher, sondern verbessert den Geschmack zusaetzlich erheblich.

  3. Hanseata,
    I finally got the Italian and made this recipe as well as the other brötchen recipe on The Fresh Loaf. One of my students just came back from being stationed with the military so he was my guinea pig. (I haven't been back since 2000.) the Type 00 flour really makes the difference. I'm going to try the other, hot milk recipe with the Italian flour but both my student and I were in heaven when we tried the batch made from your recipe. My son actually got down on his knees and gave thanks for a bakng mom. (He's seventeen and just a wee bit dramatic.)
    Thanks, this was fun.

  4. I'm so glad to hear that, Cometprof!
    When you are living in Germany and can get Brötchen every day, you don't think much of it. Nobody bakes Brötchen at home, only some fancy whole grain ones, perhaps. But when you can't get them anymore, you start dreaming of them.
    Happy baking,

  5. Guten Tag Hanseata!

    I wanted to thank you for your recipe above! I've been scouring the internet for years and recently stumbled upon yours. It is amazing how a simple piece of bread can be so difficult to replicate in the States. I tried your recipe exactly as indicated, but left off the egg wash with the different seeds. I grew up eating the plain brotchen and was just looking for a basic recipe. Although I have made a few adjustments to the recipe since the first time I tried it, your recipe gave me the direction I needed. Thank you so much! For those who are looking for that basic plain brotchen recipe, I offer the following tips to the recipe above. To provide a little more 'air' to the recipe, add 1 stiffly beaten egg white to the yeast and water mixture before you add the dry ingredients. If you don't want an olive oil taste, replace it with melted crisco shortening (placed in microwave for 90 seconds and then cooled to below 110 degrees). Shortening is used to 'shorten' the gluten in the flour...making it more chewy. So, I increased it to 50 grams. I also doubled the sugar to 8 grams simply for taste. Remember the dough needs to be pretty wet...so you probably will be adding more liquid. When I divided the dough into 12 equal pieces, I found the end products to be pretty large. They grew together on my cookie sheet (which is a half sheet....so it's not that small). I like brotchen a little smaller than a tennis ball, so plan on using 2 sheets if you do as well. I also found my 'double insulated' cookie sheet was actually too thick. The bottom of the roll didn't get hard. I used a thinner cookie sheet lined with parchment paper and then gave the rolls an additional squirt with a fine mist of water after the first 9 minutes. That seemed to do the trick for me. I like using parchment paper simply for clean-up reasons, but you may not have a problem with 'crustiness' if you just use the cookie sheet. All in all...the recipe is a definite keeper and I'm so glad that it was posted on the internet. I gave some to my brother and his first comment on opening the bag and taking a whiff was...."that's exactly what I remember!" and then after taking a bite....he said...."you nailed it!" Thanks again!

  6. Hallo, Tom,
    I'm happy to hear that this recipe works for you! Another possibility, if you don't want to have a seed topping, is a starch glaze:
    Bring 100 g water and 2 g of corn starch to a boil, then let it cool down to room temperature. Brush proofed rolls with glaze, just before they go into the oven. When you rotate baking sheet, apply another layer of starch glaze.
    Then the rolls will have the crackling, shiny surface some German rolls have (Rundstücke).
    Happy baking,

  7. Hallo Karin!

    I just finished baking a batch of broetchen and used your recipe for the glaze. I liked the effect! Thanks for offering it!


  8. You are very welcome, Tom. I just came back from Cancun/Mexico - no bread baker's paradise there, the white bread was all fluffy, tasteless, and had no crust. And the beautiful pastry only looked nice - it was very sweet and nothing else.

  9. Thank you for posting this brotchen recipe! We were in Germany for three years, and fruhstuck brotchen was a treat. Now, if you could only tell us how to make quark. The most acceptable substitute was full fat Greek yogurt, Fage brand. I drained it, and it seemed to work pretty well. Now I need to make this recipe for the bratwursts we will be having. Vielen Dank!

    1. You are very welcome! And, please, let me know how you like them. By the way, my Dutch baking friend Freerk made a YouTube video clip how to make these:
      Ach, ja - quark! I wish we could get it here. For German Cheesecake (see my post) cream cheese works quite well, but not for other purposes. I made do with keeping buttermilk at 150 F overnight until it curdled. That has the right consistency, but not quite the tang. For the real thing you need rennet. I have a recipe, and I was thinking of ordering some rennet online - it is supposedly not that difficult to make quark.
      And Bratwurst, seasoned with majoram and thyme, is one thing I miss here, too.

  10. We just got back from a trip to Bremerhaven (and some other cities in northern Germany). I miss the Brotchen so much and have been dying for some since we got back. I want to try your recipe but I have a question. We had some Brotchen that had the pumpkin seeds on them with other seeds -- I think it was sunflower seeds and something else. I thought that these Brotchen were not plain white bread, they seemed to be more of a whole grain or whole wheat bread. Do you know what these type of Brotchen are and do you have a recipe for them? They look similar to the one in the front of this photo: https://sphotos-a.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ash3/s720x720/582735_480869188592930_155262135_n.jpg

  11. Hi, Yvette - have you been in my hometown, Hamburg, too? I'm glad to hear that you enjoyed the Brötchen you had on your trip.
    You are right, the roll on your photo certainly has some rye in it. There are many different recipes for Brötchen, and I will look for one like that.

    1. We were in Bremerhaven, Cuxhaven and Bremen but didn't think we'd have enough time to visit Hamburg too (part of the trip was visiting my mother's family). We already want to go back and will definitely visit Hamburg next time!

  12. On the topic of quark, here's a pointer to a recipe at The Splendid Table. I usually like her recipes. http://www.splendidtable.org/recipes/quark

  13. Thanks for the link, Mike. I tried making quark with buttermilk, left in a 150 degree warm oven overnight, otherwise made the same way. The texture is right, but the taste is a little bit too bland, not quite tangy enough.

  14. I have made your brotchen and linked back to your post for anyone who wants the recipe, they are lovely! just lovely! xx Jo http://zebbakes.com/2013/11/23/german-style-rolls-brotchen/

    1. I'm very happy to hear that you liked them, Joanna. And thanks for the link. I will put a link in my post, too.

  15. Can anyone please convert this to U.S. measures? Many thanks!

    1. I updated the post adding US measurements. Thanks for visiting, and letting me know that there was a problem :)

  16. This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.

  17. Hello! We spend a lot of time in Germany and I've been wanting to replicate the white breakfast "brotchen" rolls we eat at all of the bed and breakfasts for years (with the spiral mark on the top). We have a German bakery in our town that makes them and they don't taste right. Is this the best recipe to make those plain rolls? Would the German flour or the Italian flour work best, or are they the same?

    My grandma is full German and it would be such a wonderful treat to surprise her with these rolls! Thank you so much!


    1. Also, do you think butter could be used instead of olive oil?

      Thank you!

    2. Hi, Robin, American Kaiser Rolls (those with the decorative spiral) are definitely not the same as what you get in Germany or Austria.
      For a crisp wheat roll with a fluffy crumb, do try my recipe.
      If you have German Typ 450 flour, you can use it. I can't find it here easily, but I can get Italian 00 flour that is very similar, both have much lower protein/gluten than all-purpose flour. Another possibility would be white pastry flour, if you can find it.
      You can use melted butter or olive oil.
      Let me know how they turn out,

      Happy Baking!

    3. Great, thank you! I found both the German and Italian flour on Amazon so I'll try the Italian. Thanks for your help!

    4. These were great for my first try! I had some trouble with shaping them though. I found some youtube videos on folding it over to get that "spiral" shape, but was wondering if I should do that process before, after, or during the 2 hour proofing time. I did it before and they ended up pretty flat. Do you have any idea?

      I used shortening this time but might try melted butter next time just for the flavor. I'll let you know how they turn out! Your corn starch wash worked great to get a crispy crust.

      Thanks again!

    5. I'm happy to hear that they turned out well.
      You will definitely have to shape the rolls before proofing them, otherwise they will deflate. I have never done rolls like that, but here is a link to Brotdoc Björn Hollensteiner's "Saalacher Kaisersemmeln", where he describes that procedure (his post is in German and in English): http://brotdoc.com/2013/08/27/saalachtaler-kaisersemmeln/

  18. I am going to try your recipe -- I grew up in Wisconsin, and every bakery sold hard rolls. When I moved away, no one had even heard of them. There are many descendants of German immigrants in Wisconsin, so I'm hoping the hard rolls I loved are descendants of brotchen. Wish me luck!

    1. Sounds if they were - I always wonder why, with so many Americans of German origin, most of their bread baking skills were lost, and the squishy breads prevailed.
      Good luck, Heidi, and let me know how your rolls turn out!

  19. I am a beginner and have ordered the Italian flour. I would like to know the brand and size of those storage containers. You also inspired me to make a starter. Vielen Dank fuer die wunderbaren Rezepte!

    1. These are just cheap 8-cup containers with lid from the supermarket. They come in packages of 4, made by Glad and others. They work great, don't need much space and stack nicely.
      Danke für dein nettes Kompliment!

  20. Hello. I too miss the brötchen from Germany. They are a wonderful memory of my childhood and a treat when I go back to visit. As you said, no one bakes them because you can buy them everywhere. I have a quick question for you. I have found German flour available for purchase here in Texas. It is the Diamant brand and Weizen Mehl Type 405. Would this also work?

    1. Yes! That would definitely work. Good luck baking them, and, please, let me know how they turn out.
      Happy Baking,

    2. Hello Karin
      Thank you for this recipe :) I had a unopened bag of 00 Italian flour that needed using and yours was the only suitable online recipe for bread rolls (not loaves) that I could find. Having lived in Germany for a year, I also love white German rolls so was delighted to give it a try. I used the ingredients in your recipe but have been short of time today so decided to risk making the dough in my breadmaking machine, before baking the proved rolls in the oven. I made two batches: the first in a standard white bread 'dough' programme, and the second in the 'dough' programme for wholemeal bread because it has a longer kneading time. The first batch was fine but the rolls were rather flat, even though they tasted good. The second batch worked really well: the rolls rose well and the crust was nicely crisp. So, for anyone wondering if they can use 00 Italian flour to make bread roll dough in a breadmaking machine, the answer is YES...although you may need to experiment with the best programme on your machine. Only one problem: my house is now filled with such a delicious aroma that I just want to keep eating! Lecker, lecker, lecker ;)
      Thank you!

    3. Hi, Mary, I'm glad you like the rolls, and thanks for sharing the result of your bread machine experiment. I used to prepare the dough for my German Feinbrot in the bread machine (also with the whole grain program) until it broke one day, and I had to come up with a different procedure.
      The aroma is the baker's reward - even if she/he doesn't bake for her/himself but for customers. (Helps with selling a house, too :)

  21. I am of German descent and just got back from visiting family there and would like to make the whole grain ones with the seeds on top that were my favorite there. My half brother's family is in Bielefeld, and my mother's family near Hildesheim. Would you have a recipe for these? Would love to make them!!

    1. What kind of rolls were those - did they have rye in it, or was it whole wheat? There are so many types of rolls, and I could certainly give you some recipe, if I knew more about the type of rolls you had.

  22. I just returned from two weeks in Germany/Austria, ate Brötchen about every morning and am anxious to try your recipe.

    Is Cake Flour too light in protein?
    Can I blend it with unblanched AP?
    I can get pastry flour from a nearby Amish community.

    I loved the research into the difference between european vs american flours.

    Quark Recipe Link-
    I have made this quark several times. It seems to be close to what is purchased in Germany.

    Purchase the dry culture (Fromage Blanc) from the Cheesemaking site. I use it to make "Quark Balls" , a recipe my daughter got from her German boyfriend's grandmother. They are now married :-) She called them Quarkkeulchen. A Google search turned up pancakes, not something closer to a doughnut hole.

    I hear Whole Foods (or one of those upscale food stores) carries quark.

    1. Hi, John, cake flour has 6-8% protein, AP 10-12%, depending on the brand (King Arthur and Hodgson Mill reach almost bread flour levels, Pillsbury and Gold are a bit softer). You can try blending, and see what results you get, but I would recommend trying the Amish pastry flour first.
      Thanks for the quark making link, I will look into it. Whole Foods offered quark from the Vermont Creamery for a while, but I haven't seen it there anymore, and it is outrageously expensive, since you always need more for a cake than a small tub.
      You are right, Quarkkeulchen are a kind of donut, definitely not a pancake. "Berliner" (the most common kind of German jam-filled donuts) are also called "Berliner Pfannkuchen", though they are definitely not pancakes. Maybe that is the reason for the strange Google search result.
      Good luck with the Brötchen baking, and, please, let me know how they turn out.


  23. Guten Tag, Karin,
    Thank you so much for your Broetchen recipe. I spent ten years in Germany and really miss the good Broetchen along with a lot of other things. I tried your recipe and the appearance, taste, and inner crumb were all near perfect. However the outer crust was just not that hard crackling crust so necessary for good Broetchen. Of course you know what I'm talking about. When you tear open good Broetchen, little bits and pieces of the hard crust go flying all over the plate. The crust on the rolls I made had a little crunch to it when eaten, but pretty much stayed intact when broken apart, and just too soft. I used the cornstarch glaze as recommended and I scored my rolls just before brushing the glaze on. Any suggestions? I'm thinking maybe I didn't get enough steam. I used a larger broiler pan on the bottom rack and then poured a cup of boiling water in the pan just before putting the baking pan/rolls on the center rack. But the broiler pan has such a large heated surface that it seemed like all the water immediately steamed up and out the open oven door, before I even closed it. Can you please tell me what kind of steam pan and technique you use? Also Richard Ploner's book, Brot aus Sudtirol" recommends using a convection oven if possible. I have a convection oven, but did not use convection on this first attempt, because my neighbor, who's hobby is baking, didn't think convection was good for baking. What do you think? Any other suggestions you can give me will be greatly appreciated. I'm very close, I think, to having really good Broetchen again. Thank you again, for your wonderful blog!! Alles Gutes Marc

    1. Thank you for your nice compliment about my blog, Marc. Yes, the crust should definitely be crispy, even though you never get it as shatteringly crisp with a home oven (same with baguettes). Have you ever tested whether your oven temperature is correct? All the three ovens I had needed some kind of adjustment, ran either a bit too high or too low. That might be the reason.
      If the steam evaporates too fast, you will get a thicker, tougher crust. I used different methods (depending on my ovens), either a cast iron pan, or a juice pan for roasting, or, the latest, a tinfoil loaf pan filled with lava stones. They all worked okay, since the oven door was well sealed. I always use convection (fan assisted in my old oven, or true convection in my new one). Since I run a home-based micro-bakery, I need to bake several loaves on two tiers at a time. Never had any problems with that.

  24. Hi Karin,
    Thank you so much for responding and for your comments and suggestions. I have a very good Wolf stove/oven and I tested the oven temp some time ago, but I'll certainly test it again. The first time I tried your recipe, I used a roasting pan and did not use the convection setting. It seemed the water steamed away too quickly and I did get the thicker almost leathery crust. The second time I preheated a soaked small towel in the microwave and then used it with an additional cup of boiling water in a cast iron pan, and again did not use convection but just regular bake. Basically the same results as the first attempt. Rolls taste good, just not the nice "shatteringly crisp" crust. Both cases I brushed with the cornstarch mixture. Based on your input, I'll try again, using the towel technique I read about somewhere, but this time I'll use convection. I'll report back with the results. Thanks again!! Marc

  25. Karin,
    One quick question that I forgot. When you use convection for this recipe, do you still use the same temperature, i.e. 428 Fahrenheit, or do you reduce the temperature, because you are using convection?

    1. My oven auto-converts the temperature tor convection mode. if yours doesn't, you have to reduce it by 25°F.

  26. Karin,
    Love your brotchen recipe. However, you are incorrect that Italian typo 00 is lower in protein than its American counterparts - King Arthur AP and even King Arthur Bread flour for instance. Typo 00 is typically 12.5% protein and regarded as high gluten. By contrast, KA AP is 11.7% and KA Bread flour 12.5%. Irrespective, I use Antimo Caputo 00 for your brotchen and my German friends swear by the results.

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